0000002560 00000 n (Hollinger, 2002, p. 39: Kay, 2002) Because neither theory is satisfactory in its pure form, I am compelled to use a blend in real life. 216 0 R 0000032379 00000 n (“Normative Ethics” n. d. ). 213 0 R Don’t miss a chance to chat with experts. But Kant insisted that as far as the moral evaluation of our actions was concerned, consequences did not matter. 215 0 R Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/consequentialist-versus-deontological-ethical-systems/. >> 0000059594 00000 n endobj Deontology, Consequentialism and Moral Realism A. Jean Thomas Abstract This Article analyzes hybrid philosophical models that combine deontological and consequentialist principles. 28-31; “Normative Ethics,” 2002; Sinnott-Armstrong, 2006) Deontological ethical theory takes its name from the Greek root “deon,” meaning “that which is obligatory. Utilitarianism denied that the moral rightness of any act depended on anything other than the consequences of the act. Their system was “hedonistic,” in that they claimed that pleasure was the only true “good” and pain is the only true “bad. To calculate this, one had to compare the total amount of good that the act caused, minus the total amount of bad that the act caused. Mill. Its four conditions are 67 supposed to be jointly necessary for self-evidence, but the second tells 68 us to ascertain ‘the self-evidence of the proposition’. 0000025962 00000 n (“Normative Ethics. << >> 38-39: Kay, 1997) Putting Kant’s categorical imperative into practice, however, has presented a number of serious problems. stream Demonology is "the normative ethical position that Judges the morality of an action based on the action's. The mere intention to conduct these actions reveals. 368 0000009454 00000 n /E 62596 Whereas, consequentialism focuses on the consequences of the action. /Root 172 0 R 172 0 obj and Act so that you treat humanity, both in your own person and in that of another, always as an end and never merely as a means. 0000018335 00000 n (Mill, 1861, 56) This did not satisfy Mill’s critics, who contended that in the end, utilitarianism supported hedonism. forms of consequentialism cannot accommodate moral con-straints by using the idea of what is good-relative-to-an-agent. >> Deontological ethical theories are strongest in the areas where utilitarian theories face the greatest difficulty. Moral rightness depends on From Socrates, one can move ahead to Immanuel Kant, whose philosophical system led to his system of the “categorical imperative”: “Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end, and never as a means only. /T 190250 0000053801 00000 n 0000001945 00000 n This paper explores the ethics of bank executives receiving large bonuses despite the fact that they received a bailout. If the net total net amount of good was greater than this net amount of good for any other act that the agent might have performed, then the act was good. Contrary to the consequentialism of Mill, Kant’s theory judges morality by examining the nature of actions and the will of agents rather than the goals sought or the ends achieved. 212 0 R 0000007537 00000 n (“Normative Ethics. x�c```a``=�������A�X��,3YX�9R%T�\˳��\8��� � /+���o�m��S[�2ز���ŶE����^�[w�AOS��2���r5p��՛nϩ���Η�?�Z�����l���!���mQ��e�ۑ�Nb鿪���E&�NO�6����v�.W�0� wHA�A ��v`5^� �b�2��k8�4>q��|�գ�i:b{�>;�Qx��g��7���=��*��_5�-z���Ԑ�*"�0�a�����=���F���� �p This is just a sample. ” Their system was “consequentialist” in that its proponents claimed that an act is morally right if the act causes the greatest good. Critics charges that the ethical system of Epicurus leads to an austere hedonism. Conflicting duties, however, may require that I perform logically or physically incompatible actions, and my failure to do any one is itself a moral wrong. (Hollinger, 2002, pp. (“Normative Ethics,” n. d. ; Hollinger, 2002, pp.37-39). 177 0 obj 0000003441 00000 n 0000002304 00000 n 0000029668 00000 n Consequentialism focuses on the consequences or results of an action. This left the utilitarian system open to attack because of the hedonism it advanced. 0000029555 00000 n /B[ 176 0 R 177 0 R 178 0 R 179 0 R]/CropBox[0 0 567 737] I follow a utilitarian approach in the sense of trying to maximize the good that I bring to people, but with an awareness that there are categorical situations beyond which I will not go. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. For example, suppose a ruler wished to revive the Roman practice of public crucifixion of criminals. To describe this in general terms, this deontological theory focuses on the inputs leading to actions rather than outcomes produced by those inputs. Even if it was determined that the general populace was so caught up in a blood lust that the pleasure of the masses who would watch the agonies of the condemned far, far out-weighed the suffering of the victim, the categorical imperative demands that individual human rights be acknowledged and held inviolable. startxref Thomas Aquinus linked this. 0000016403 00000 n 171 48 0000029612 00000 n For example, lying is always wrong -- even the "polite lie" or the lie told for noble reasons. 0000001485 00000 n 0000010727 00000 n Consequentialism An action is the right thing to do in certain circumstances if, of all the actions available in those circumstances, it would produce the best outcome.