The paper sets out to give an appreciation of acute cadmium poisoning, the characteristics and uses of cadmium, and a review of the literature. Persons who have sustained kidney damage due to chronic cadmium exposure often have blood or urine cadmium levels in a range of 25-50 μg/L or 25-75 μg/g creatinine, respectively. More severe exposures can cause tracheobronchitis, pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema. Urinary cadmium levels do not rise significantly after acute exposure and are not useful for testing in the acute setting. Regulations that set permissible levels of exposure, however, are enforced to protect workers and to make sure that levels of cadmium in the air are considerably below levels thought to result in harmful effects. Chemical pneumonitis. Townshend RH. Five cases with one death from renal necrosis. Cadmium pneumonitis can occur and look strikingly similar to metal fume fever. This phenomenon is known as itai-itai disease. The ACGIH biological exposure indices for blood and urine cadmium levels are 5 μg/L and 5 μg/g creatinine, respectively, in random specimens. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal commonly found in the environment, can cause toxic reactions at a dose of 30 mg. Cd is absorbed into the body mainly through the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and skin. In the 1950s and 1960s industrial exposure to cadmium was high, but as the toxic effects of cadmium became apparent, industrial limits on cadmium exposure have been reduced in most industrialized nations and many policy makers agree on the need to reduce exposure further. Br J Ind Med. Initial symptoms resemble the onset of a flu-like illness- chills, fever, and [citation needed], Food is another source of cadmium. Cadmium is used in nickel-cadmium batteries; these are some of the most popular and most common cadmium-based products. IARC, Lyon, France. This oxidative stress causes the afflicted cell to manufacture large amounts of inflammatory cytokines. Chelation therapies to remove cadmium are not effective, so the most important action is to prevent additional exposure. News", "McDonald's Recalls Cadmium-Tainted Shrek Glasses - Made in NJ", http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc134.htm, "Safety and Health Topics | Cadmium - Health Effects", "Cadmium (Cd) Toxicity: How Does Cadmium Induce Pathogenic Changes? Symptoms of acute poisoning by cadmium is rapidly increasing. This causes pain in the joints and the back, and also increases the risk of fractures. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Parkinsonism after acute cadmium poisoning Clin Neurol Neurosurg. Another side effect is increased levels of chloride in the blood (hyperchloremia). A 64-year-old man suffered from acute exposure to cadmium, followed by multiple organ failure. Under some circumstances, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration requires screening for kidney damage in workers with long-term exposure to high levels of cadmium. Recovery can occur from an acute episode of poisoning with no side effects. Three months after exposure, the patient developed parkinsonian features. The urinary beta-2 microglobulin test is an indirect method of measuring cadmium exposure. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cadmium ion removal by adsorption onto nanozerovalent iron particles. Cadmium is an extremely toxic industrial and environmental pollutant classified as a human carcinogen: Group 1, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer; Group 2a, according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and a 1B carcinogen as classified by European Chemical Agency